Organic standards prohibit the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides and fungicides, as well as chemical- or sewage sludge-based fertilizers on or around crops. Wineries can earn organic certification if they use only approved processing aids and ensure that inorganic substances don’t come into contact with organic grapes and additives. (Wine Spectator)
This holistic approach, founded in the 1920s by Austrian scientist and philosopher Rudolf Steiner, looks at the wine estate as a self-sustaining, self-regulating ecosystem. All organic waste must be recycled into the nutrient stream so that the farm's needs can be met from within. A diverse population of predator and prey animals, birds and insects must be encouraged to maintain balance in the ecosystem. Diluted treatments and composts made from herbs, minerals and manures are applied to the vineyard to promote crop fertility and control pests.(Wine Spectator)
Refers to a range of agricultural practices that are not only ecologically sound, but also economically viable and socially responsible. Farmers have flexibility to choose what works best for their individual property so that they can be profitable, but they generally recycle, conserve energy and water and use renewable resources when possible. To minimize the use of chemical products, growers add nutrients to the soil through cover crops and compost, and they control pests with native birds and beneficial insects. If growers need chemicals to deal with a severe problem, they choose the least-toxic option.(Wine Spectator)
The French term, la lutte raisonnée means 'the reasoned struggle' or, as translated in the US, 'integrated pest management'. Growers who practice this kind of viticulture use chemicals less often and less aggressively than conventional growers.